It is generally believed that ICTs can empower teachers and learners and that their overall impact is positive. There is, however, little scientific evidence of the concrete contribution of ICTs to the learning process. ICTs’ impact remains difficult to measure, because of the lack of appropriate indicators, and therefore open to debate. Evidence is quite often derived from opinion-based studies interpreting perceived, not actual, impact. Some experts describe them as tools to support and improve existing learning processes rather than having any transformative potential. Studies tend to find small positive educational outcomes without ascertaining the causality of the link (i.e. it may be that more effective schools and teachers are more likely to use ICT and digital technologies effectively). Moreover, the cost advantage of digital learning is disputed. A recent comparative study (2012) suggested that the idea that online learning is less expensive is based more on intuition than on fact, since most existing studies lack rigorous control and use self-reported data.

Ivana Katsarova

Katsarova, I. (2014). New global interactive strategies for teaching and learning. European Parliamentary Research Service.