This paper critically explores the intended and unintended consequences of ICT in education. Research across the sciences has found that ICT is neither benign nor neutral in its effects on the human brain, particularly where children and adolescents are concerned. The negative effects of ICT use include sleep deprivation, distraction and multitasking, all of which directly impact on learning. Research also indicates that traditional methods of learning though reading and writing on paper-based media provide superior learning outcomes for students at all levels. Recent research on ICT in education indicates no broad improvements in learning outcomes despite decades of investment and advances in EdTech. The nub of the issue is that the affordances of ICT are not aligned with the way in which the human brain functions. The paper discusses this state of affairs, offers several practical recommendations on how ICT might be better applied, and concludes by advocating that teachers should educate students in critical thinking about, and problem solving through, digital technology.tom Butler
Butler, T. (2015). Ict in Education : Fundamental Problems and Practical solutions.