Most of the teachers regard digital platforms for teaching as highly instrumental due to their instructional design. Instrumental teaching means that students know precisely what is expected of them after every lesson and what comprises the lesson’s specific content. The problem from the perspective of democratic schooling is that pressure from school principals and a lack of time to prepare lessons mean that such methods constitute the majority of teaching among the interviewed teachers – methods that do not enhance or encourage students’ critical and innovative thinking (Biesta, 2018). The programmed technical architecture leads to a reduction of teaching to those activities that can be captured in measurable quantitative form.

Ronni Laursen

Laursen, R. (2020). Does the combination of professional leadership and learning management systems signal the end of democratic schooling? Research in Educational Administration & Leadership5(2), 342-374. DOI: 10.30828/real/2020.2.2