High school students who attended school remotely reported lower levels of social, emotional, and academic well-being (ES = 0.10, 0.08, and 0.07 standard deviations, respectively) than classmates who attended school in person— differences that were consistent across gender, race and ethnicity, and socioeconomic status subgroups but significantly wider among 10th, 11th, and 12th graders than ninth graders.

Angela L. Duckworth et al

Duckworth, A. L., Kautz, T., Defnet, A., Satlof-Bedrick, E., Talamas, S., Lira, B., & Steinberg, L. (2021). Students Attending School Remotely Suffer Socially, Emotionally, and Academically. Educational Researcher, 0013189X211031551. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X211031551