On the one hand, high levels of demotivation, passive attitudes, boredom, poor engagement and frustration among the students are specifically identified in this category. Examples of studies that applied AI-enabled learning interventions to mitigate these issues include Maravanyika et al. (2017), who proposed an adaptive recommender system-based framework for personalised teaching on e-learning platforms. An affective tutoring system (ATS) named Tamaxtil was developed to identify when students become frustrated and confused, at which point it offers them the help they needed (Padron-Rivera et al., 2018).

Tumaini Kabudi, Ilias Pappas, Dag Håkon Olsen

Kabudi, T., Pappas, I., & Olsen, D. H. (2021). AI-enabled adaptive learning systems: A systematic mapping of the literature. Computers and Education: Artificial Intelligence2(March), 100017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.caeai.2021.100017